Parsley – Herb of the Month and Herb of the Year

By Maryann Readal

The spotlight is shining on parsley this month. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is The Herb Society of America’s Herb of the Month for January and the International Herb Association’s Herb of the Year for 2021. The three most common varieties of parsley are P. crispum or curly-leaf parsley,  P. crispum var. neapolitanum or flat-leaf Italian parsley, and P. crispum var. tuberosum or turnip-root parsley which is grown for its root and is used in soups and stews.

Parsley has an interesting history dating back to Greek and Roman times. To the Greeks, parsley symbolized death and was not used in cooking. However, according to Homer, the Greeks fed parsley to their chariot horses as they thought it gave them strength. The Greeks believed that parsley sprang from the blood of one of their mythical heroes, Archemorus, whose name means “the beginning of bad luck.” From then on parsley had an association with death and misfortune. Victorious athletes in the Nemean games were crowned with wreaths of parsley, symbolizing the contest’s origin as a funeral game dedicated to Archemorus. The Greeks had a saying: “De ‘eis thai selinon” (to need parsley), which meant that a person was near death. They also decorated their tombs with parsley.

parsley italianThe Romans, on the other hand, wore wreaths of parsley to ward off intoxication and used it at meals to mask the smell of garlic. Perhaps this is where the idea of parsley as a garnish originated. It is said that the Romans also covered corpses with parsley to cover the smell of decay. 

The Romans and the Greeks used parsley as a medicine. Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE), in Chapter 20 of his book The Natural History, talks about using a decoction of parsley seeds for  kidney troubles and ulcers in the mouth, and goes on to say that “fish also, if they are sickly in ponds,  are revived by fresh parsley.”  

The Romans brought parsley to England, where colorful folklore arose around the herb, much of it centering around death and ill luck. In Devonshire, it was believed that transplanting parsley would offend the guardians of the parsley bed and that the person doing the transplanting would be punished within the year. In Surrey, it was believed that if someone cut parsley, that person would be crossed in love. In Suffolk, it was thought that parsley should be sown on Good Friday to ensure it coming up double. It was believed that when planting the seeds of parsley, the seed went to the devil nine times and back, with the devil keeping some of the seeds for himself.  This may have been an explanation for the slow germination of parsley seeds. 

parsley root school projectParsley began to be eaten during the Middle Ages.  Charlemagne was said to have grown large quantities of parsley in his gardens for this purpose. Early immigrants brought parsley to the Americas where it was used as a culinary herb.

The association of parsley with death and misfortune played out again in 1937 with the execution of Haitian immigrants in the Dominican Republic. An immigrant’s safety depended on if they could pronounce the word “parsley” correctly. This was called the Parsley Massacre and you can read about this tragic piece of history connected with parsley at https://www.ibtimes.com/parsley-massacre-genocide-still-haunts-haiti-dominican-relations-846773.

parsley pestoParsley is a versatile herb in the kitchen. It adds brightness when sprinkled over any finished dish, and is good in salad dressings, soups and stews. It is one of the ingredients in fines herbes, the French persillade, South American chimichurri, and Mexican salsa verde. The Japanese deep fry parsley in tempura batter, and the Swiss serve deep fried parsley with their fondue. And of course, it is used in pesto. It truly is a universal herb.  Herbalist Madalene Hill, former President of The Herb Society of America, in her book Southern Herb Growing, says that her green butter recipe “should accompany most steaks and that its use will probably relegate the steak sauce and ketchup bottle to the back of the refrigerator where they belong.”  Her recipe is simply one stick of softened butter combined with two cups of finely chopped parsley and one tablespoon of lemon juice.

Parsley is a biennial herb and is easy to grow in moist soil in sun or part shade. It is a good companion plant in the garden, warding off asparagus beetles.  Tomatoes, peas, carrots, peppers and corn will also benefit by having parsley nearby.  The flowers attract bees and hoverflies which eat aphids and thrips. It is also said to improve the scent of roses and keeps them healthier. I like to use parsley as a border plant in my garden, which the Greek and Medieval gardeners were also fond of doing. A benefit of including parsley in your garden is that it is a host plant for the swallowtail butterfly, which will frequently lay eggs on the plant.

Parsley swallowtailWithout a doubt, parsley does have medicinal benefits. It is high in vitamins A, C, and K, and contains antioxidants. The leaf, seed, and root are used in medicine. People have used it to treat bladder infections, kidney stones, gastrointestinal disorders, and high blood pressure. Some apply parsley to the skin to lighten dark patches and bruises. It is also used for insect bites.  Pregnant women are advised not to take parsley in medicinal amounts, as it increases menstrual flow and has been used to cause abortion.

For more information on parsley, go to The Herb Society’s Herb of the Month web page and the Essential Facts for Parsley.

Photo Credits: 1) Curly leaf parsley (Amanda Slater); 2) Italian parsley (Maryann Readal); 3) Parsley root (schoolphotoproject.com); 4) Parsley pesto (Wikimedia Commons); 5) Swallowtail caterpillar (Wikimedia Commons) 

References

Fowler, Marie. Herbs in Greek mythology. The Herbarist. 2010. 

Gardening Know How. Information about parsley. https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/herbs/parsley  Accessed 12/13/20.

Ghosh, Palash. Parsley Massacre:  The genocide that still haunts Haiti-Dominican relations. International Business Times. https://www.ibtimes.com/parsley-massacre-genocide-still-haunts-haiti-dominican-relations-846773  Accessed 12/21/20.

The Herb Society of America. Essential facts for parsley. https://herbsocietyorg.presencehost.net/file_download/inline/140a12b8-0fe0-4a52-ac2c-2b61ea6e786a Accessed 12/22/20.

Hill, Madalene and Barclay, Gwen. Southern Herb Growing. Fredericksburg, TX., Shearer. 1997.

History of parsley-Proverbs & folklore.  http://www.ourherbgarden.com/herb-history/parsley.html Accessed 12/15/20.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History.  Internet Archive. http://www.attalus.org/info/pliny_hn.html Accessed 12/21/20.

WebMD. Parsley. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-792/parsley Accessed 12/22//20.

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Maryann is the Secretary of The Herb Society of America and a Master Gardener. She is a member of The Society’s Texas Thyme Unit in Huntsville, TX. She gardens among the pines in the Piney Woods of East Texas.

Cinnamon – Herb of the Month

By Maryann Readal

Cinnamon is the name for several plant species in the laurel family (Lauraceae). It is a small tropical evergreen tree with aromatic leaves and bark. The spice, cinnamon, is the bark of the tree which has been shaved, rolled, and dried into the familiar tubes called “quills.”  

cinnamon_1 Creative CommonsThe two most common cinnamon species are “true” or Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum aromaticum). “True” cinnamon is grown in Sri Lanka. Cassia cinnamon is grown in Southeast Asia and is the one found in the spice section of your grocery store. The two cinnamons differ in taste and color, with the “true” cinnamon having a more subtle, delicate flavor and a lighter color. It is also more expensive. The picture is a good illustration of the difference between the two cinnamons. The cinnamon on the left is the coarser cassia cinnamon. The cinnamon on the right is Ceylon cinnamon. Notice how the quills of the Ceylon cinnamon are tightly rolled.

Cassia cinnamon has a higher content of the natural ingredient coumarin. Scientists discovered that coumarin may cause reversible liver damage in susceptible people. This discovery led the European Union in 2011 to limit the amount of coumarin in food to 6.8mg per pound of food (about one teaspoon). This created a furor in Scandinavian countries where the cinnamon bun, which has a high cinnamon content, is a traditional baked good, and cinnamon stars are a popular cookie. Sweden found a way around this restriction by claiming that the cinnamon bun was a traditional food, and therefore, was subject to the higher coumarin limit of 22.7mg per pound of food. The Danish baking industry argued that switching to the “true” or Ceylon cinnamon, with its lower coumarin content, would ruin the taste of their traditional food and make it much more expensive as well. As you may imagine, this issue was very important in a country which celebrates National Cinnamon Bun Day on October 4th, and which looks forward to its daily fika tradition of having coffee along with their famous cinnamon bun. 

cinnamon Maryann ReadalCinnamon was first traded by the Arabs who protected their source of the spice by telling fantastic tales of how wild birds guarded the cinnamon trees. References to cinnamon were found in ancient Chinese botanical medical texts dating back to 2800 BCE. Cinnamon has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. The Egyptians used cinnamon in the embalming process, as a medicine, and as a flavoring for beverages. There are a number of references to cinnamon in the Bible as an ingredient in Moses’ anointing oils (Exodus) and as a token of friendship between lovers and friends (Proverbs), while the Romans burned cinnamon on their funeral pyres. In 65 CE, Nero burned a year’s supply of cinnamon during his second wife’s funeral ─ a wife who he had assassinated. 

In medieval Europe, cinnamon was an indicator of wealth. It was burned as incense, as well as used to preserve meat. During the Bubonic Plague, sponges were soaked with cinnamon and cloves and placed in the sick room. It was also used to cure coughs and indigestion. 

Toward the end of the Middle Ages, the demand for cinnamon grew at the same time as traditional trade routes were threatened by unrest in the Arab world. Portuguese sailors began to look for alternate sources of spices, leading to Chrisopher Columbus’s landing in the Americas,  as well as the discovery of the source of cinnamon – Ceylon.  By the time the British East India Company gained control of the spice trade in the 19th century, demand for cinnamon had waned and was replaced by coffee, tea, sugar, and chocolate.

cinnamon tree Creative Commons Magda WojtyraSo where are we today with cinnamon, besides it being a necessary ingredient in our cinnamon buns, cinnamon candies, and apple pie? Several clinical studies have shown that cinnamon does help control fasting blood glucose levels in Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic individuals. It has also been found to lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. However, the National Institute of Health feels not enough study has been done to make a definitive recommendation for using cinnamon as a treatment. They do recommend that, if using cinnamon as a food supplement or medicine, the lower coumarin Ceylon cinnamon should be used.

Here is hoping you will enjoy many ─ but not too many ─ cinnamony treats this holiday season.

Photo Credits: 1) Quills of cassia cinnamon (left) and Ceylon cinnamon (right) (Creative Commons); 2) Cinnamon bun (Maryann Readal); 3) Cinnamon tree (Creative Commons, Magda Wojtyra).

References

Aubrey, Allison. Cinnamon can help lower blood sugar, but one variety may be best.  https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/12/30/255778250/cinnamon-can-help-lower-blood-sugar-but-one-variety-may-be-best.  Accessed 11/18/20.

Bundesinstitut fur Risikobewerlung (BfR). FAQ on coumarin in cinnamon and other foods.  https://www.bfr.bund.de/en/faq_on_coumarin_in_cinnamon_and_other_foods-8487.html.  Accessed 11/18/20

National Center for Complimentary and Integrative Health. Ciinnamon. May 2020. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/cinnamon. Accessed 11/20/2020.

Osborne, Troy David. A taste of paradise: cinnamon. https://www.lib.umn.edu/bell/tradeproducts/cinnamon. Accessed 11/11/20.  

Ting Lu. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutrition Research.  June 2012. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22749176/  Accessed 11/17/20.

The Guardian. Cinnamon sparks spicy debate between Danish bakers and food authorities. December 20, 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/20/cinnamon-intake-food-argument-denmark  Accessed 11/11/20.

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Maryann is the Secretary of The Herb Society of America and a Master Gardener. She is a member of The Society’s Texas Thyme Unit in Huntsville, TX. She gardens among the pines in the Piney Woods of East Texas.

HSA Webinar: Enhancing Brain Health using Natural Botanicals

Sponsored by The Herb Society of America’s Long Island Unit

by Jen Munson, Education Chair

Nootropics is a trending topic. Nootropics (pronounced noh-a-trop-iks) includes drugs, supplements, and plants that may improve brain function. According to Allied Market Research, a market research and advisory company, brain enhancing supplements made up $3.50 billion in sales in 2017 and is projected to grow to $5.81 billion by 2023. Unfortunately, it’s an industry that is rife with misleading ingredients and marketing.

True nootropics should aid natural cognitive function, support and protect brain function, and be non-toxic to the user. The properties and constituents of nootropic herbs have demonstrated numerous benefits. Using medicinal herbs to enhance brain health is nothing new; in fact, many have been used safely and effectively for thousands of years. 

Some brain boosting herbs can be readily found in the garden. Although rosemary has been symbolically used to represent remembrance, it is a plant rich in terpenes, phenolic acids, and antioxidants, which improved brain speed and accuracy in unofficial studies. Another commonly found plant in the herb garden is lemon balm. This lemony plant aids in increasing alertness while protecting the brain. Holy basil is a gentle herb and is thought to reduce cortisol (a fight or flight hormone) levels caused by chronic stress.

The Herbal BrainTo learn more about herbs that enhance brain health, join us on November 12th at 12pm EDT when Dr. Emory Prescott shares with us “Enhancing Brain Health using Natural Botanicals.” In this one-hour webinar, Dr. Prescott will discuss her doctoral research on nine specific herbal nootropics. Her research study was so overwhelmingly productive that it led to her leaving her clinical and teaching positions to start THE HERBAL BRAIN®, LLC. ” as a full-time business.  Attendees can expect to gain knowledge of brain cognition, neuroplasticity and neurogenesis, and the most potent cognitive-enhancing herbs as they pertain to improving brain health. As a special bonus to participants, we’ll be raffling off a gift basket made up of brain boosting products and a copy of Dr. Prescott’s book titled, The Herbal Brain. Thank you to the Long Island Unit for their sponsorship of this program!

Our webinars are free to members and $5.00 for guests. Become a member today and enjoy all of our webinars for free along with access to the webinar library with over fifty program titles. To register, visit  www.HerbSociety.org/hsa-learn/hsa-webinars/

Photo Credits: 1) Rosemary; 2) The Herbal Brain. All photos courtesy of Dr. Emory Prescott

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Dr Emory PrescottDr. Emory Prescott is founder and owner of THE HERBAL BRAIN®, LLC.  Emory is also a North Carolina native, past university professor, author, avid gardener, herbalist, and medical speech-language pathologist with 26 years of experience helping patients with neurological issues. Her PhD in Natural Health Sciences and doctoral research has given her a unique perspective on brain health as it applies to typical adults, as well as those with memory issues. With a passion for healing, Emory has created a unique line of products blending highly beneficial herbs, which research has shown to enhance memory and boost brain function. THE HERBAL BRAIN® produces teas and aromatherapy products specifically blended for enhanced brain health. Her gardens are located on the Balsam Range overlooking Sylva, NC.  To contact Emory, please visit her website at www.theherbalbrain.com

The Herb Society of America Celebrates 50 Years of Research Grants

By Jen Munson, Education Chair

matthew rubinThe Herb Society of America’s Research Grant Committee is pleased to celebrate 50 years of the HSA Research Grant by announcing its 2020 recipient. The $5000 grant was awarded to Dr. Matthew Rubin of the Miller Lab at Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri. Dr. Rubin’s study is titled “Characterizing patterns of phenotypic variation and covariation in natural populations of American Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota).”

The study will research compounds extracted from the roots of the American licorice plant. The compounds identified by Dr. Rubin in his proposal include liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizin, and glycyrrhetinic acid, which offer flavoring, sweetening (50 times sweeter than sugar), medicinal, and cosmetic applications.

Miller Lab TeamAccording to The HSA Research Grant Committee Chair Joy Lilljedahl, “Society has an ever increasing need for diverse medicines as well as healthy and safe food. The challenge is to do so while preserving native plant ecology. The Research Grant Committee overwhelmingly agreed that Dr. Matthew Rubin’s proposal lived up to this challenge.”

G. lepidota is native to North America. It is an herbaceous perennial with purple to lavender flowers and is a member of the legume family (Fabaceae). Licorice extracts are used to flavor baked goods, dairy products, sauces, chewing gum, beverages, medicines like cough syrup and throat lozenges, and tobacco for pipes.

The Miller Lab is part of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and is focused on perennial crops and wild perennial species. Its goal is to advance the evolution of perennial plants through perennial crop improvement, the development of novel crops for agriculture, and the conservation of perennial plant genetics.

Field Photo“The Herb Society of America was founded nearly 90 years ago by a group of women who were dedicated to the serious study of herbs but who didn’t have many opportunities for formal science education. Funding herbal research advances our educational mission and honors our founders.” – Amy Schiavone, The Herb Society of America President.

Photo Credits: 1) Matthew J. Rubin, PH.D. Postdoctoral Research Associate, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, The Miller Lab; 2)Miller Lab members (from left to right): Emelyn Piotter (Saint Louis University Biology MS student), Leah Brand (Danforth Center Lab Technician) and Matthew Rubin (Danforth Center Research Scientist) at the Shaw Nature Reserve Field Research Site- the future home of the plants for this project; 3) The Miller Lab Team Practicing Social Distancing in the Field. All photos courtesy of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center

Herb Society of America is Now Accepting Proposals for an Intro to Herb Series

By Jen Munson, Education Chair

rfp imageThe Herb Society of America is seeking proposals from speaker/educator(s) qualified and capable of planning, executing, and producing a series of recorded and interactive online classes. The purpose of this project is to deliver an interactive online classroom experience that meets the information and content expectations of a targeted audience. HSA requires the educator to have demonstrated experience in herbs along with developing and producing such program(s).

Our target audience is the amateur gardener or those looking for a refresher on how to grow and use major herbs. We are seeking three to five recorded online courses. Each class would be approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour in length, and would highlight how to grow and use herbs. At the conclusion of the online program, participants will be able to:

  • Define what makes a plant an herb
  • Identify 5-10 common herbs
  • Grow an herb garden
  • Implement basic uses for herbs in the home
  • Design a theme garden 
  • Extend the life cycle of herbs through harvesting, drying, and storing 

Use of previously generated HSA content may be accessed and included for the development of the classes. This may include, but is not limited to, essential guides, Herb of the Months, newsletter articles, website, and The HSA Beginners’ Guide to Herbs. All courses and content created under this Request for Proposal (RFP) would be for the complete and exclusive use of HSA.

business-man-2452808_1920If you and/or your organization are interested in submitting a proposal, please obtain a copy of the RFP by contacting Jen Munson, HSA Education Chair at jenmun08@gmail.com. Please share this request with other individuals or organizations that may be interested. 

HSA Webinar: Hamlet’s Poison: The Mystery of Hebanon & Shakespeare’s Other Deadly Plants

By Jen Munson, HSA Education Chair

‘There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance; pray, love, remember: and there is pansies. that’s for thoughts.’ (Hamlet 4.5.248)

William Shakespeare’s poetic plays are filled with dramatic imagery and references to plants, herbs, trees, vegetables, and other botanicals. Shakespeare’s awareness of the botanical world was near the level of herbalists of that period, and the use of plants throughout his plays is done with unparalleled sophistication. They are used to enhance ideas and describe characters, as well as for metaphors. For example, Hamlet describes the state of Denmark as “…an unweeded garden / That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature” (Hamlet 1.22.134-136). 

Plants are used for evil doings and central plot development. They are transformed into potions that are  lust invoking, (Viola tricolor in Midsummer Nights Dream), sleep inducing (Atropa belladonna in Romeo and Juliet), and as poisons for dipping swords and arrows (Hyoscyamus niger in Hamlet). As All Hallows’ Eve approaches, what better time to explore the dark side of botanicals by learning about the many plants cited by Shakespeare. 

Join HSA on October 22nd at 1pm EDT for Hamlet’s Poison: The Mystery of Hebanon & Shakespeare’s Other Deadly Plants, with guest speaker and author Gerit Quealy. During this program Gerit Quealy will take a Law & Order approach to Shakespeare’s poison plants, including what killed Hamlet’s father. The symptoms of the various specimens will be examined, along with the use of forensic evidence, to catch the conscience of the king! Our webinars are free to members and $5.00 for guests. Visit  https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/hsa-webinars or click here to sign up.


Gerit Quealy is an author, actor, and journalist. Her 2017 publication, Botanical Shakespeare (Harper Design/HarperCollins), reveals Shakespeare’s keen awareness of botany alongside his ability to catapult nature into the land of emotion and metaphor, creating some of the world’s most unforgettable passages. The over 170 flowers, fruits, grains, grasses, trees, herbs, seeds, and vegetables that are named in Shakespeare’s poems and plays, alongside all the lines in which they appear, are highlighted in this unique book. As a journalist, she has covered everything from lipstick to Shakespeare, with pieces ranging from dollhouses to birdhouses to beauty, brownies, and brides in outlets including The New York Times, Country Living, Woman’s Day, and Modern Bride, to name a few.

Rose Hips – Herb of the Month

By Maryann Readal

If you grow roses, plan now for rose hips. Simply leave the spent flowers on your rose bushes after their last bloom of the season. Do NOT cut them off. Allow the fruits of the rose, which are the rose “hips,” to ripen on the bush. The hips will turn red or orange depending on the rose variety. When the sides of the hips are soft to the touch, they are ready to harvest. Waiting to harvest until after the first light frost increases the flavor of the hips.  

Now, you may be wondering why you should allow your roses to form hips. Here are some good reasons:

  • Ounce for ounce, rose hips contain eight times more vitamin C than oranges,  according to the US Department of Agriculture Food Data Central.
  • They are also rich in vitamins A, B, E, and K, as well as other nutrients.
  • Rose hips make a nice tea and can be used in making jams, jellies, soups, and even wine.
  • Rose hips are a food source for birds during the winter. 
  • Their bright red to orange color brightens the winter garden.
  • The formation of rose hips on your rose bushes signals the roots of the rose to conserve energy and prepares the bush for winter.

rose hip teaRose hips can be cooked, dried, or frozen. To prepare ripe rose hips, cut off the blossom and stem ends of the rose hip.  Slice them in half and remove the hairy seeds.  They are now ready to be used for jams or jellies, or dried or frozen for later use. Processing rose hips does reduce the vitamin C content.

Like many other herbs, rosehips have a long history of use.  

  • Ancient Chinese, Greeks, Romans and Persians used rose hips for medicine. Pliny the Elder (23-79 BCE) in his book Natural History documented thirty-two remedies made from the rose.  He said, “In the case of a toothache, the seed (rose) is employed in the form of a liniment; it acts also as a diuretic, and is used as a topical application for the stomach.”
  • Rose hips were served as a sweetmeat in the Middle Ages and were used as a treatment for chest problems (Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine). 
  • Native Americans used the hips of native roses for food and for medicine. 
  • Nicholas Culpepper (1616-1654), a famous English physician, botanist, and herbalist, details use of rose hips as medicine in his book the Complete Herbal. He said, “The pulp of the hips have a grateful acidity, strengthens the stomach, cools the heat of fever, is pectoral, good for coughs and spitting of blood.” 
  • During World War II, when supplies of citrus fruits were cut off, rose hips were collected in England and made into syrup. The syrup, high in vitamin C, was given to children to prevent scurvy. 
  • Today, according to WebMD, people use rose hips to boost their immune systems because of the high Vitamin C content. There is some evidence that rose hips may also be an effective treatment for joint pain and stiffness.  Always consult with your health care provider before treating health symptoms with herbs.

rose teaSo, which roses are best for rose hips? Hybrid tea roses are bred for the beauty of the bud and flower, and are definitely not the best choices if you want robust rose hips. The old fashioned varieties, Rosa canina (dog rose) and Rosa rugosa, are the best producers of rose hips. According to the American Rose Society, the Hansa and the Frau Dagmar Hastrup varieties and other R. rugosas produce the best hips. These old roses are the easiest to care for of all of the rose varieties and are a sure winner if you are looking to harvest your own rose hips. One caution though, if you are planning to use your hips in recipes, do not spray them with chemicals.

Rose hips are the Herb of the Month for The Herb Society of America.  For more information, recipes, and a beautiful screen saver, go to https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/herb-of-the-month.html 

For a very nice guide to roses, go to The Herb Society of America Essential Guide to Roses. https://www.herbsociety.org/file_download/inline/83784ac3-dac2-4586-8d62-6bbf56a98b74

References:

American Rose Society. Hip! Hip! Hooray!!!  https://www.rose.org/post/2018/04/19/hip-hip-hooray. Accessed 9/14/20.

Bucks, Christine. Hips, hips, hurray! Organic Gardening. Vol. 43, Issue 9. December 1996. Availble from Ebscohost. Accessed 9/14/20.

Chevallier, Andrew. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants.  NY: DK Publishing Inc. 2000. 

Culpepper, Nicholas. Complete herbal. London: Foulsham, 1880. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/culpeperscomplet00culpuoft/page/298/mode/2up Accessed 9/14/20)

Duluth News Tribune. Yardsmart: History and uses of rose hips. https://www.duluthnewstribune.com/lifestyle/4166730-yardsmart-history-and-uses-rose-hips. Accessed 9/13/20.

Fenyvesi, Charles. Reveling in Rosehips: a deliciously delightful harvest. Washington Post, October 20, 1988. Available from ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Accessed 9/11/20.

Hope, Christopher. The medicinal benefits of rose hips. https://www.permaculture.co.uk/articles/medicinal-benefits-rose-hips. Accessed 9/11/20.

Patel, Seema. Trends in Food Science & Technology. Vol. 63, pg. 29-38. May 2017. Available from Ebscohost. Accessed 9/14/20. 

Pliny the Elder. Natural history of Pliny. London; Henry Bohn, 1853. Volume 3, Pg. 265. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/naturalhistoryof03plin Accessed 9/16/20.

Toops, Connie. Roses: seven rose species whose hips and thorny thickets provide food and shelter for birds in winter. Birders World. Vol. 18, Issue 6. December 2004. Available from Gale in Context Science database. Accessed 915/20.

US Department of Agriculture. Food Data Central. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/. Accessed 9/15/20

WebMd. Rosehips. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/rosehip-uses-and-risks#1 Accessed 9/15.20.rose-hip-952318_1280 (1)

Photo Credits: 1) Rosa rugosa ‘Hansa’ hips and flower (Creative Commons, W. Carter); 2) Rose hip tea box (Maryann Readal); 3) Rose hip tea (Maryann Readal); 4) Rose hips (Pixabay)

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Maryann is the Secretary of The Herb Society of America. She is a Master Gardener and a member of The Society’s Texas Thyme Unit in Huntsville, TX. She gardens among the pines in the Piney Woods of East Texas.

HSA Webinar: The Chakra System Displayed in a Garden

by Jen Munson, Education Chair

It’s accepted that good health can be found in nature, from the benefits of hands in the dirt to the reduction of stress from a walk in the woods. Another modality for good health is the chakra system. Chakra is Sanskrit for wheel or circle and references the wheels of energy located in the body. The chakra system is a network of energy channels that are mapped throughout the body. Although some may not ascribe to this way of thinking about the body, others embrace a life of learning and exploring this modality.

Join us on September 24th at 1pm EDT for our webinar titled, The Chakra System Displayed in a Garden. Herbalist and business owner Jane Hawley Stevens will be our guest presenter. At Jane’s award-winning organic farm, Four Elements Herbal, she created a garden that organizes plants according to the body systems. Her Chakra Garden has seven distinct areas with plants specific for each body system that help heal and rejuvenate. Learn about this eastern system of healing, the herbs, and the garden design that explains it.

Our webinars are free to members and $5.00 for guests. Visit  https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/hsa-webinars or click here to sign up. Become a member today and enjoy all of our webinars for free, and as an added bonus, you’ll automatically be entered into a raffle for a free educational conference registration to our 2021 conference being held in Baton Rouge, LA, from April 29th to May 1st, 2021.

In preparation for our upcoming webinar, continue reading to become more familiar with the chakra system. There are seven primary chakras found along the spine starting at the perineum and moving straight up to the top of the head. Each chakra vibrates at a different energy level and reflects a different color and part of the body and its function.

First Chakra – Root – Located at the perineum, this chakra connects us to the earth and is associated with the color red. It entails the spinal column, kidneys, legs, and colon. Plants for this chakra include dandelion root, garlic, parsnips and other root-like herbs.

Second Chakra – Sacral – Located by the sacrum, it’s connected to pleasure and emotional balance. It’s represented by the color orange and is Chakra Image-page-001associated with the reproductive organs, prostate, and bladder. Herbs for this energy channel include calendula, sandalwood, vanilla, carob, fennel, and licorice.

Third Chakra – Navel – Located by the belly button, it is the center of our emotions, including willpower and assertion. With its yellow color it covers the pancreas, liver, and stomach. Plants to support this wheel include celery, rosemary, cinnamon, peppermint, spearmint, turmeric, cumin, and fennel.

Fourth Chakra – Heart – Located centrally near the heart, this chakra represents love, acceptance, forgiveness, compassion, and intuitiveness. The color is green and the associated body systems are heart and the circulatory system. Plants for the fourth chakra include cayenne, lavender, marjoram, rose, basil, sage, and thyme. 

Fifth Chakra – Throat – Located at the throat, it entails communication, self expression, creativity, and truth. The color is blue and the organs associated with it are the thyroid, hypothalamus, throat, and mouth. Plants for this chakra include lemon balm, red clover, eucalyptus, peppermint, sage, salt, and lemongrass.

Sixth Chakra – Third Eye – Located in the center of the brain, this chakra represents wisdom, intuition, and analytical abilities. The color is a deep purple and the associated organs are the pineal gland, nose, ears, and pituitary gland. Herbs to support this energy wheel include mint, jasmine, eyebright, juniper, mugwort, poppy, and rosemary. 

Seventh Chakra – Crown – This chakra is found just above the crown of the head and connects us to divine energy. Its color is light purple, indigo blue, or white. No organs are associated with this energy wheel, and herbs that support this energy center include lavender and lotus flowers.

Photo Credits: 1) Sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera (Erin Holden); 2) Chakra system


jane hawley stevensJane Hawley Stevens has been working with herbs, from starting seeds to creating herbal wellness, since 1981. Jane and her husband, David, own and operate a 130-acre certified organic farm in Baraboo Bluffs, Wisconsin. Just this year, Jane and David were named the Midwest Organic & Sustainable Education Service (MOSES) 2020 Organic Farmers of the Year! 

Their farm is also home to Four Elements Organic Herbals. Their property is composed of cultivated fields, prairie, and woodland. Jane believes that healing comes from nature, so dedicates her power to nurturing healing herbs, both cultivated and wild. These are hand harvested at peak potency to create her unique line of remedies. In this rural setting, Jane has contributed her message of honoring nature to schools, civic groups, and through Four Elements’ Annual Open House over the past 30 plus years.

HSA Webinar: A Recipe for Success

By Bevin Cohen

I’ve long been amazed by the generous bounty offered to us by Mother Nature. Even as a young boy picking wintergreen berries in the woods, I just couldn’t believe that these tasty treats were available for me to enjoy, in quantities greater than I could ever consume, and the only cost was an afternoon in the shady forest, harvesting the luscious fruits as I listened to the melodious whistling of the birds and the occasional scurried sounds of a startled chipmunk or squirrel. 

As an adult, my appreciation for Nature’s endless gifts has only deepened, and I find IMG_1408myself preaching her message of abundance to anyone willing to listen. Through my work as an author, herbalist, and educator, I’ve been placed in a unique position to share my knowledge, experiences, and passion with audiences the world over, and the core of my message has always remained the same: Mother Nature provides for our every need. But we must first take the time to learn her language and then follow her advice.  

Just shy of a decade ago, my wife, Heather, and I founded Small House Farm, a sustainable homestead project in central Michigan. As a practicing herbalist, I felt that this venture was the perfect opportunity to continue promoting my ideology of Nature’s abundance and localized living. The salves, balms, tinctures, and teas that we offer are purposely crafted using only herbs grown in our gardens or harvested from the wild. Additionally, we have taken on the task of producing our own seed and nut oils through cold pressed, expeller extraction for all of our product lines. It’s through this direct relationship with our ingredients that we are able to create products that are not only potent and useful but that also reflect our value and commitment to localized sustainability. Just as the sommelier believes that the terroir of the grapes is reflected in the quality of the wine, at Small House we believe that our locally sourced ingredients are the recipe for success.

Please join me on Thursday, August 20th, at 1pm EDT for an Herb Society of America webinar entitled “Wildcrafted Herbs and Fresh Pressed Oils: How Locally Sourced ArtisanHerbalist_CatIngredients are a Recipe for Success.”  During this presentation, I’ll be discussing the value of locally sourced herbs from one’s own bioregion and the multitude of herbal allies available to us in our nearby parks, fields, and forests. I’ll also share my thoughts on do-it-yourself seed and nut oil production for use in herbal formulas, drawing on my years of experience with small-scale commercial production and sale of various oils including hempseed, sunflower, almond, flax, and pumpkin seed. 

Those joining us for the webinar will receive an exclusive coupon code for a 15% discount off the cover price of my 2019 bestselling book, Saving Our Seeds, as well as a unique link to preorder my upcoming book The Artisan Herbalist: Making Teas, Tinctures and Oils at Home (New Society ’21).

Webinars are free to Herb Society of America members and $5.00 for guests. Visit https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/hsa-webinars or click here to sign up. Become a member today, and enjoy all of our webinars for free, and as an added bonus, you’ll automatically be entered into a raffle for a free educational conference registration to our 2021 conference being held in Baton Rouge, LA, from April 29th – May 1st, 2021.

Photos courtesy of the author.


BevinCohenBevin Cohen is an author, herbalist, gardener, seed saver, educator, and owner of Small House Farm in Michigan. Cohen offers workshops and lectures across the country on the benefits of living closer to the land through seeds, herbs, and locally grown food, and he has published numerous works on these topics, including the bestselling Saving Our Seeds and his highly anticipated new book, The Artisan Herbalist (New Society ’21). He serves on the board of the International Herb Association and the advisory council for the Community Seed Network. Learn more about Cohen’s work on his website  www.smallhousefarm.com 

Makrut Lime – Herb of the Month

By Maryann Readal

thai lime fruitThe Herb Society of America’s Herb of the Month for August is the makrut lime, Citrus hystrix, a member of the Rutaceae family. This lime is also known as kaffir lime or Thai lime, and also wild lime. You may have spotted it in a produce market or Asian supermarket and wondered what makes it different from an ordinary lime. It certainly looks different, in that it has a gnarly, bumpy skin. The very aromatic leaves are different, too, because they look as though they are two leaves attached to each other. The juice is sour and bitter, and so is not usually used in cooking because it can overwhelm other flavors.

This lime has been widely grown in Asia for so long that it has become naturalized in many countries. Therefore, no one is certain of its origin. It is a staple ingredient in Thai, Cambodian, Vietnamese, and other Southeast Asian cuisines. The leaves, which are sold frozen, fresh, or dried, are usually finely chopped and incorporated into food or sprinkled on top. The makrut lime can be planted outdoors in warmer climates, or grown in a pot that can be brought inside for the winter in colder climates. It is a host plant for the giant swallowtail butterfly.

thai limeRecently, there has been a concerted effort among chefs and other food professionals to replace the name kaffir lime with the name makrut lime or Thai lime. The word “kaffir” has a derogatory, racist connotation in South Africa, and it has a derogatory religious meaning in Middle Eastern countries. 

Like other citrus species, the leaves, seeds, skin, bark, and root of the makrut lime have a number of medicinal benefits. In Southeast Asian countries, it has been used in shampoos, ointments, and in toothpaste and mouthwash products. A recent study published in the journal Nutrition by Kooltheat et al. (2016) has shown that the essence of the lime used on the teeth and gums  can prevent tooth decay. In Malaysian countries, the leaf is rubbed into the gums and on the teeth as a mouth and dental cleaner. And because of the fruit’s limonene and citronella content, it is added to shampoos to treat lice. The lime has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat colds and congestion and to help with digestion. Its oil is also used in aromatherapy to reduce stress, anxiety, and fatigue. In Thailand, makrut lime is added to household cleaning products. The authors of an article in Drug Intervention Today conclude that because of the lime’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial components, “extensive investigation on its pharmacology and clinical trials is needed to exploit their therapeutic utility to cure various diseases” (Abirami et al., 2014).

Distillers and bartenders have discovered that the addition of makrut lime to their beverages can make distinctive-tasting and aromatic drinks. Treaty Oak Distilling in waterlooDripping Springs, Texas, has developed a gin that incorporates the makrut lime, as well as other herbs. They describe their gin as making you “rethink everything you thought you knew about this spirit.”

Research on the medicinal qualities of the makrut lime underscores the importance of protecting native species that have been used for centuries as medicinal plants. It is promising that there is ongoing research on the effective medical applications of not only the makrut lime, but many other native medicinal plants as well.

For more information on the makrut lime, please visit The Herb Society of America’s website, where you will find more information, recipes and a beautiful screen saver of this unusual-looking fruit. https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/herb-of-the-month.html

Sources:

Kooltheat, N.  et al. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Nutrition. 32, (4). April 2016. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0899900715004165?via%3Dihub#!

Abirami, A., Nagarani, G., & Siddhuraju, P.  The medicinal and nutritional role of underutilized citrus fruit-Citrus hystrix (Kaffir Lime): A Review.  Drug Intervention Today.  6(1), January, 2014. Retrieved from http://docplayer.net/38584426-The-medicinal-and-nutritional-role-of-underutilized-citrus-fruit-citrus-hystrix-kaffir-lime-a-review.html

Photo Credits (from top): Makrut lime fruits (Creative Commons); Makrut lime leaves (Wikimedia Commons, courtesy Forrest & Kim Starr), Waterloo Old Yaupon Gin (courtesy Treaty Oaks Distillery).

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Maryann is the Secretary of The Herb Society of America. She is a Master Gardener and a member of the Texas Thyme Unit in Huntsville, TX. She gardens among the pines in the Piney Woods of East Texas.