Propagating Rosemary Plants with Stem Cuttings

By Peggy Riccio

cuttingPlant propagation is just a fancy word for making more plants from what you have. I love to propagate the plants in my garden. To me, it is magical that an entire shrub can be created from cutting six inches off the stem. Taking stem cuttings is an easy way to make more shrubs to fill in gaps in the garden or to share plants with gardening friends. 

One shrub that I often propagate via stem cuttings is rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). The best time to do this is in early summer when new spring growth starts to become semi-woody but is still supple enough to root easily. The rosemary plant’s stems must have new growth but be firm enough to snap. If you can grasp the end of the branch about 6 inches from the top, bend it at a 90-degree angle and it snaps and breaks off, it is ready. 

cuttinginbagI cut from the tip of the stem, about 5-6 inches down, ensuring that there are several nodes. The node is the point where additional stems/branches arise but also the point in which there is a higher chance of root stimulation. I first cut above the node on the shrub and then make a second cut on the stem, just under the last node. I remove the bottom leaves and insert the cutting into water, then a commercially prepared rooting hormone, and then in the pre-moistened potting mix, about one-inch deep, in a small plastic pot or container. The cut end of the stem is just dipped into the rooting hormone – only the end needs it. 

I, then, cover the plant with a gallon size zipper top plastic bag, blow air into the bag to inflate it as much as possible, and close it. I put my cuttings in a cardboard box or lid and then place this on my deck under the eave of my house for shade. The box prevents the bags from blowing over or away. The next day, I check the bags to make sure they have condensation inside. If you see condensation, then you know it has enough moisture. If you do not see condensation, open the bag, take the plastic pot/container out, water it, and put it back in the bag.

rootedAfter a few weeks, I check rooting progress by opening the bags and gently pulling the cuttings to see if there is resistance. If the cuttings have rooted, I start to open the bags a little bit, a few hours a day, still in the shade. If I open the bags and the plants wilt very quickly, I know they have not produced enough roots yet. Successful rooters will keep their color in the leaves; unsuccessful plants will fade or collapse. I always cut more than I need, because there will be some that will not “take.” It is a numbers game, much like growing from seed.

Once the cuttings have rooted and can survive without the bag, I transplant them to a larger pot. I often give these away to friends, but for my garden, I let mine grow on the deck and gradually expose the plants to full sun. I do not plant these cuttings in the garden bed until the fall. The larger the plant, the more roots, and the more likely it will be successfully transplanted in the garden bed. Plus, the cooler fall weather is better for transplanting than the summer’s heat.  

rosemaryinlargerpotWhen you propagate by stem cuttings, you must always use clean materials to prevent a fungal infection. It is best to use clean plastic containers with drainage holes. Sterilize them with a 10% bleach solution of one part bleach and nine parts water, rinse, and let dry. Sterilize cutting tools, pruning shears, or garden snips with rubbing alcohol before you make the cuts. 

Use a bagged potting mix specially formulated for starting seeds such as Pro Mix, Jiffy, or Burpee. The water for watering the potting mix and for dipping the cutting should be “clean,” i.e., tap water, not water collected from rain (gray water). The bags should be new and unused.

The best time to take stem cuttings is in the morning when the plant is “turgid” (turgid refers to cells or tissues that are swollen from water uptake). Make sure you have everything ready and available; you cannot afford to let the cuttings sit and wilt while you bleach the pots. Have fun with this, and always do more than you need so you get the amount you want. Give the extras to friends!

Photo Credits: 1) Cutting dipped in rooting hormone; 2) Cutting in a plastic bag; 3) Rooted cutting; 4) Potted up cutting. All photos courtesy of the author. 


A horticulturist in Virginia, Peggy Riccio’s website, pegplant.com, is an online resource for gardeners in the Washington, DC metro area. Currently, she is the chair of the Potomac Unit of The Herb Society of America.

Sensory Herb Gardens for Special Needs Children

By Candace Riddle

IMG_0317Ever since Beatrix Potter wrote The Tale of Peter Rabbit, children and gardens have had a special friendship. That friendship is even stronger between children with special needs and special gardens called “sensory gardens.” 

The difference between a sensory garden and a “regular” garden is the human factor— regular display gardens are designed primarily for visual beauty, while a sensory garden is designed to stimulate all the senses: sight, sound, scent, touch, and taste. A display garden is meant to be viewed or seen from either a short or long distance, whereas a sensory garden is meant to be experienced close and personal using all five of the human senses.  

Educators describe a sensory herb garden as peaceful and calming with the ability to draw kids into the moment; even non-verbal kids can show their feelings about their garden experience.

When we use the term “children with special needs” in this writing, we are painting with a broad brush including physical, mental, emotional, and educational disabilities. When planning a sensory herb garden, consideration must be given to not only the garden plan—both hard and soft scaping—but also how children with any of these special needs can interact with the garden.  

_DSC0301As with any garden plan, sensory herb gardens start with the lay-out and hardscape: the beds should be narrow enough for children to reach into (from any side, the depth should be no more than 24 to 30 inches; that is one of the advantages of the tiered square design–it allows access on four different sides at three different levels, see photos), and the paths must be wide enough to accommodate wheelchairs and walkers, which would preclude the use of gravel or a soft ground cover and mandate concrete, bricks, or flagstones. Mulch can also be used as part of the sensory experience. Pine needles, for example, have a sweet scent; wood chips have a tactile feel; and oyster shells have a scent of the sea and a smooth or sharp feel. A water feature can bring several things to the sensory garden: trickling sounds, the sensation of feeling water or wetness, even taste (usually happens when you are not looking!). Windchimes can be a pleasant addition for both the sound they provide and the visual appearance of wind moving through the garden.  

Once the hardscape has been planned, it is time to move on to the plant material, which is, of course, the fun part. Plants should be chosen for the special values they possess to enhance the sensory experience of the children. Below are some examples of plants that may be used in a sensory garden: 

Sight: lavender, nasturtiums, English thyme, anise hyssop, sage, and other Salvias 

Sound: pollinator plants, including Mondarda spp. (bee balm), that will encourage bees to make their happy buzzing sounds (of course, special instruction and close supervision must be in place to protect children and bees!). Balloon flowers and false indigo could be included for sound, as their seed pods make popping and rattling noises as they mature.  

Smell: Any strongly scented herb would be a good addition. Some of the most popular are rosemary, hop, fennel, thyme, sage, basil, chives, and, of course, scented geraniums.

Touch: lamb’s ear, yarrow, coneflowers, rosemary, and lemongrass 

Taste: basil, dill, and anise hyssop 

As you can see from the examples above, there is a lot of crossover as far as the plants go; they can provide multiple sensory experiences. Children should be supervised closely when in the garden to ensure their safety. While you want the fullest experience, the safety of the children is the most important factor. 

While the best way to provide a sensory garden experience is outdoors, children can have a satisfactory adventure using enclosed areas such as an enclosed courtyard or even a container garden. These are both good options for populations of students with a tendency to bolt or elope from the area.

IMG_0824The photograph depicts a newly created sensory garden in Maryland’s northern Baltimore County farmland. This garden was designed to be a part of the agricultural tourism initiative that is taking hold in rural areas. “The Farmyard” is a new agriculture venture started by a local farming family to introduce children to all aspects of a working farm, not the least of which is allowing children to sponsor farm animals and help in their care throughout the year. “Farm School” runs all year long offering classes in animal care and upkeep, crop growing, food preservation, and self-sufficiency. As part of the farm school, a class on herbs and their uses is taught. The sensory herb garden is a part of the education of students in the knowledge of herbs in daily life. All students are encouraged to touch all the herb plants, smell them, and taste them. An herbal educator is available during public events to guide children through the garden and explain the uses of the different plants. The focus in this garden is useful herbs in everyday life. (Though all of the senses are considered in this garden, touch, taste, and smell probably are better represented than sight and sound.)

The design of this garden was limited to the structures already in place, which worked out well as the terraced beds allow children of all heights to view at different levels, and the beds are also shallow enough to allow visitors to reach into the entire garden—all tiers are accessible. To increase the visual appeal of the gardens, snapdragons and zinnias, with their colorful flowers, were added to each garden section. Some of the other plants that were included in the gardens are: 

Rosemary—scent, touch, taste 

Sage—scent, touch, taste (The turkey in the pen next to the garden was a bit uncomfortable with the Thanksgiving herb right next door!) 

Fennel—scent, sound (for the wind moving the fronds and the pollinators that they welcome); visitors were invited to dig up the bulbs and taste them in the fall

English thyme—scent, sight (pointing out that the little flowers are used for baby fairies’ sleep!)

Dill—scent, sight (the full seed pods are beautiful!), and of course, the taste (just like dill pickles)

Lamb’s ear—touch, sound (the bees love this herb) 

Marigolds—sight, smell 

Basil (sweet and Thai)—scent, taste, sight 

This sensory garden is a work in progress, and it is expected to welcome children of all ages and circumstances for years to come. It is the long-range goal to have schools target this farm and garden as a field trip destination once schools resume a normal schedule.  

IMG_0427While the herb sensory garden at The Farmyard is on private property and maintained by dedicated volunteers, this is not the case in most public gardens. While public gardens often attract groups to plan and build sensory gardens, ongoing maintenance during the planning stages, as well as after the garden is established, is often performed by staff of the public facility. 

Gardens are an important element in many people’s lives, and sensory gardens, in particular, can add an immeasurable richness to the lives of children and especially children with special needs. We encourage you to explore supporting a sensory garden in your area.

Photo credits: 1) Sensory garden at The Farmyard (Candace Riddle); 2) Children in the National Herb Garden (Chrissy Moore); 3) Herb collage (Chrissy Moore); 4) Tiered sensory garden, The Farmyard (Candace Riddle); 5) Herb collage (Chrissy Moore); 6) Children and chaperones visiting the sensory garden (Candace Riddle).


Candace Riddle is a retired educator and an herbal enthusiast for forty years. She has been a member of The Herb Society of America for over twenty years and is a founding member of the Mason-Dixon Unit. She lives in Maryland.

HSA Webinar: Enhancing Brain Health using Natural Botanicals

Sponsored by The Herb Society of America’s Long Island Unit

by Jen Munson, Education Chair

Nootropics is a trending topic. Nootropics (pronounced noh-a-trop-iks) includes drugs, supplements, and plants that may improve brain function. According to Allied Market Research, a market research and advisory company, brain enhancing supplements made up $3.50 billion in sales in 2017 and is projected to grow to $5.81 billion by 2023. Unfortunately, it’s an industry that is rife with misleading ingredients and marketing.

True nootropics should aid natural cognitive function, support and protect brain function, and be non-toxic to the user. The properties and constituents of nootropic herbs have demonstrated numerous benefits. Using medicinal herbs to enhance brain health is nothing new; in fact, many have been used safely and effectively for thousands of years. 

Some brain boosting herbs can be readily found in the garden. Although rosemary has been symbolically used to represent remembrance, it is a plant rich in terpenes, phenolic acids, and antioxidants, which improved brain speed and accuracy in unofficial studies. Another commonly found plant in the herb garden is lemon balm. This lemony plant aids in increasing alertness while protecting the brain. Holy basil is a gentle herb and is thought to reduce cortisol (a fight or flight hormone) levels caused by chronic stress.

The Herbal BrainTo learn more about herbs that enhance brain health, join us on November 12th at 12pm EDT when Dr. Emory Prescott shares with us “Enhancing Brain Health using Natural Botanicals.” In this one-hour webinar, Dr. Prescott will discuss her doctoral research on nine specific herbal nootropics. Her research study was so overwhelmingly productive that it led to her leaving her clinical and teaching positions to start THE HERBAL BRAIN®, LLC. ” as a full-time business.  Attendees can expect to gain knowledge of brain cognition, neuroplasticity and neurogenesis, and the most potent cognitive-enhancing herbs as they pertain to improving brain health. As a special bonus to participants, we’ll be raffling off a gift basket made up of brain boosting products and a copy of Dr. Prescott’s book titled, The Herbal Brain. Thank you to the Long Island Unit for their sponsorship of this program!

Our webinars are free to members and $5.00 for guests. Become a member today and enjoy all of our webinars for free along with access to the webinar library with over fifty program titles. To register, visit  www.HerbSociety.org/hsa-learn/hsa-webinars/

Photo Credits: 1) Rosemary; 2) The Herbal Brain. All photos courtesy of Dr. Emory Prescott

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Dr Emory PrescottDr. Emory Prescott is founder and owner of THE HERBAL BRAIN®, LLC.  Emory is also a North Carolina native, past university professor, author, avid gardener, herbalist, and medical speech-language pathologist with 26 years of experience helping patients with neurological issues. Her PhD in Natural Health Sciences and doctoral research has given her a unique perspective on brain health as it applies to typical adults, as well as those with memory issues. With a passion for healing, Emory has created a unique line of products blending highly beneficial herbs, which research has shown to enhance memory and boost brain function. THE HERBAL BRAIN® produces teas and aromatherapy products specifically blended for enhanced brain health. Her gardens are located on the Balsam Range overlooking Sylva, NC.  To contact Emory, please visit her website at www.theherbalbrain.com