Herb of the Month – Caraway – An Old World Herb

By Maryann Readal

White lacey flowers of carawayCaraway seed, Carum carvi, has been used in many countries of the world as a spice and as a medicine for a very long time.

The caraway plant can be either biennial or annual. It is native to western Asia, northern Europe, and north Africa. It grows as an annual in cooler climates, and in warmer regions it is planted in the fall and produces flowers and fruit the following year. Caraway does not tolerate hot, humid weather well. The flowers attract beneficial bees and wasps to the garden, and the crescent shaped “seeds” are actually considered to be fruits. The herb is in the Apiaceae family and the umbel-shaped, white-to-pink flowers resemble those of dill, parsley, celery, and other members of the family. It produces a long taproot that can be eaten as a vegetable. Because of the taproot, however, it does not transplant easily, so caraway is best grown from seed, and will reseed in the garden.

Overturned glass jar with caraway seeds spilling outReferences to caraway are found in the Ebers Papyrus (1500 BCE) and in the writings of the Greek physician, Dioscorides (50-70 CE).  Some trace its use back to the Stone Age because fossilized seeds have been found around lake dwellings from that period. The Romans used caraway and spread its use to other parts of their realm. It has been cultivated in Europe since the Middle Ages.  

There are some traditional legends surrounding caraway. It was once placed under the bed of “troubled children” as protection from witches. Perhaps these “troubled children” actually suffered from colic, which caraway was later used to treat. It was also used as a love potion due to a belief that it kept a lover from straying. For that reason, it was also used as food for chickens and birds to ensure that they would not fly away (Ravindran, 2017). In the language of flowers, caraway symbolizes faithfulness. In Poland, it was believed that the seeds had the highest healing powers if collected on June 24th, the feast of St. John the Baptist. Bags containing caraway seeds along with anise, fennel, and coriander seeds were worn around the neck because of a belief in their magical properties and their ability to expel gas (Knab, 2020).

Historically, caraway has been used to treat gastrointestinal problems. Recent studies support some of the folk uses of this herb. These uses include reducing indigestion, aiding in weight loss, reducing blood sugar levels, and reducing inflammation (WebMD, 2020). The essential oil of the herb can interact with prescription drugs, so it is recommended that one check with a healthcare provider before using caraway as a treatment.

Two loaves of bread with caraway seeds on topThe culinary use of caraway is well known.  Caraway is used to make the north African chile sauce, harissa. It is also used in the traditional British seed cake that is enjoyed with tea (Marchetti, 2013).  Its anise-like flavor is very popular in German and Slavic cuisines. The seed is used to flavor breads such as Jewish rye bread, sausages, cabbage, and fruit and vegetable dishes as well as cheeses such as Havarti. The leaves are added to soups and salads. The seeds are also used to make alcoholic drinks such as aquavit, kϋmmel, and vodka. The seeds can be sugar coated and used as a breath freshener or a digestive aid. The essential oil is used in perfumes, ice cream, candy, soft drinks, and to flavor children’s medicine (Bown, 2001). Growing up in a Slavic household, caraway seed was a staple spice in my mom’s kitchen.   

For more information about caraway, please see The Herb Society’s Herb of the Month web page.

Photo Credits: 1) Carum carvi  flowers and leaves (Guy Waterval, via Wikimedia); 2) Caraway seeds (courtesy of the author); 3) Silesian bread with caraway seeds (Silar, via Wikimedia)

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.

References

Bown, Deni. 2001 The Herb Society of America new encyclopedia of herbs and their uses. London: Doring Kindersley.

Knab, Sophie. 2020. Polish herbs, flowers and folk medicine. New York: Hippocrene Books.

Marchetti, Domenica. 2013. The caraway seed is a spice worth meeting. NPR. Accessed 8/30/22. Available from https://www.npr.org/2013/03/05/173529055/the-caraway-seed-is-a-spice-worth-meeting

Ravindran, P. (ed). 2017. Caraway: Carum carvi. The encyclopedia of herbs and spices.  Accessed 8/30/22. CABI. Credo Reference Database.

WebMD. 2020. Caraway: Is it good for you. Accessed 8/30/22. Available from https://www.webmd.com/diet/caraway-good-for-you


Maryann is the Secretary of The Herb Society of America and a Texas  Master Gardener. She is a member of The Society’s Texas Thyme Unit in Huntsville, TX. She lectures on herbs and does the herb training for several Master Gardener programs. She gardens among the pines in the Piney Woods of East Texas

Chervil – Herb of the Month

by Maryann Readal

chervil plantChervil, Anthriscus cerefolium, is similar to parsley but has a milder, anise flavor. It is sometimes called French parsley or garden parsley. The Romans named it cherifoliu, the ‘cheri’ part meaning delight and the ‘folium’ part meaning leaves—the joy of leaves.

Chervil is important in French cuisine, where it is an ingredient in classic sauces such as béarnaise and ravigote. These sauces pair well with fish, veal, or chicken. Along with parsley, chives, and tarragon, chervil is in the French herb combination, herbes fines. Chervil is better used fresh as it loses its flavor when dried. It should be added at the end of cooking to get the most out of its flavor. It is a good addition to omelets and salads and can be sprinkled over fresh fruit. Chervil makes a flavorful and colorful butter. The leaves and flowers can be used to flavor vinegar.

Chervil is an annual herb that prefers moist earth and the coolness of spring. In warmer areas, it will be a winter herb. It produces long, dark brown seeds that easily germinate, and the plant can reseed. Because of its taproot, however, chervil does not transplant well. It is recommended to sow successive plantings to have a continuous supply of the herb. You just about have to grow chervil yourself if you want to use it in your cooking because it is not an herb commonly found in the fresh herb section of your supermarket. You would more likely find it in a farmer’s market.chervil seed - wikimedia commons 

Chervil is in the Apiaceae family, the same family as carrots, parsley, and dill. It has the same feathery green foliage as the other members of this family, and these lacey leaves are the prized part of this herb. The plant produces flower stalks that can grow to about two feet and are topped with umbels of tiny, white flowers. Gardeners use chervil to bait slugs so that they do not bother their vegetables. 

Chervil is native to the Caucasus region of Europe and Asia. It has been used for food as well as for medicine for a very long time. It was considered a warm herb by early herbalists and was used in medicinal applications for that reason. The ancient Greeks used chervil to create healing spring tonics and herbalists used it to cure digestive problems. Many early herbalists wrote about chervil. Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) said that the seed in vinegar would stop hiccups. He and Nicolas Culpeper, a 17th-century herbalist, believed that, as Culpeper put it “[it] does much to please and warm old and cold stomach.” chervilDuring the Middle Ages, chervil was used to treat eye inflammations, smooth skin wrinkles, combat the plague, and treat blood clots. John Parkinson (1567-1650), a British botanist and herbalist, recommended that the green seeds be added to herb salads dressed with oil and vinegar “to comfort the cold stomach of the aged.” In the same period, John Gerard (1545-1612), a botanist and herbalist, wrote that the roots, “first boiled; which is very good for old people that are dull and without courage: it rejoiceth and comforteth the heart, and increaseth their lust and strength.” Chervil seems to have been an herb used for the elderly, as both a tonic and to boost brain health. Chervil was also used as a blood purifier, a diuretic, and to lower blood pressure (Chevallier, 2000).

Not much modern research has been done on the medicinal effects of chervil. However, a recent report in the journal Pharmaceuticals concludes that chervil holds promise for use in anti-cancer and antimicrobial treatments (Stojković, 2021).

In the practice of some earth religions, chervil is considered to be the herb of immortality. It is believed that when used as incense, it can help bring one in touch with one’s higher self and inner spirit. 

magi-myrrhIt is thought that the Romans brought chervil to France and England. It was one of the nine sacred herbs of the Anglo-Saxons of early England. The use of chervil has roots in early Christianity. The Romans called this herb ‘myrrhis’ because the smell and taste of the essential oil were reminiscent of the oil of myrrh, which was one of the gifts brought by the Maji to the Christ child in Bethlehem. Because of this, early Christians believed that chervil symbolized birth and new life. 

It is the custom in some European countries today to serve chervil soup on Holy (Maundy) Thursday. The Germans serve chervil soup on Holy Thursday, or as they call it, Gründonnerstag (Green Thursday), although it is thought that the word grün is derived from the word greinen, which means to weep, giving added significance to why the soup is served on Holy Thursday.

German Chervil Soup

4 hard-boiled eggs

2 bunches of chervil

2 spring onions

1 tablespoon butter

13-1/2 fluid oz. chicken stock 

8-1/2 fluid oz. cream 

1/2 cup crème fraiche

salt and freshly ground pepper

1 pinch sugar

1 teaspoon lemon juice

2 egg yolks beaten

Wash and dry the chervil, remove stems and chop finely, reserving a few stems for garnish.   Wash and slice the spring onions. Lightly fry the spring onions in the butter, then add the broth, cream, and crème fraiche and allow to come to the boil briefly. Season with salt, pepper, sugar, and lemon juice. Add the chopped chervil and keep warm without allowing the soup to boil.

Whisk in the egg yolks into the slightly cooled soup. Pour the soup into individual dishes.

Slice the hard boiled eggs and place them in the center of the soup. Sprinkle remaining chervil over the soup and serve.

(Recipe from German Foods https://germanfoods.org/recipes/chervil-soup/)

 

For more information and recipes using chervil, visit The Herb Society of America’s Herb of the Month web page, https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/herb-of-the-month.html

Photo Credits: 1) Chervil plant (Maryann Readal); 2) Chervil seed (Elric04, Creative Commons License); 3) Chervil flowers (CC BY-SA 3.0, Creative Commons License); 4) Adoration of the Magi by Bernardino Luini (Dennis Jarvis, Creative Commons License) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en)

References

Behr, Edward. 1986. Chervil: One of the best and least appreciated herbs. Available at https://artofeating.com/chervil/. Accessed March 15, 2021.

Chevallier, Andrew. 2000. Encyclopedia of herbal medicine. London, Dorling Kindersley.

Crocker, Pat. 2018. Herbalist’s kitchen: Cooking and healing with herbs. New York: Sterling Epicure.

Gordon, Leslie. 1980. A country herbal. New York: W. H. Smith.

Hayes, Elizabeth.1961. Spices and herbs around the world. New York: Doubleday.

Stojković, Dejan et at. Jan 2021. Extract of herba Anthrisci cerefolii: Chemical profiling and insights into its anti-glioblastoma and antimicrobial mechanism of actions. Pharmaceuticals. 14 (1). Available from EBSCOhost. Accessed March 16, 2021.

Vyas, A. et al. 2012. Chervil: a multifunctional miraculous nutritional herb. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 11 (4): 163-170. Available from EBSCOhost. Accessed March 12, 2021.

Medicinal Disclaimer: It is the policy of The Herb Society of America, Inc. not to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a recommendation or an endorsement of any particular medical or health treatment. Please consult a health care provider before pursuing any herbal treatments.


Maryann is the Secretary of The Herb Society of America and a Texas Master Gardener. She is a member of The Society’s Texas Thyme Unit in Huntsville, TX. She gardens among the pines in the Piney Woods of East Texas.