HSA Webinar: Female Poisoners

by  Sarah Penner

The_Love_Potion by Evelyn De Morgan_public domainSherlock Holmes said it best in the 1945 movie, Pursuit to Algiers: “Poison is a woman’s weapon.” It’s a statement not without evidence – historical records tell us that female poisoners were prevalent. Throughout England in the 18th and 19th  centuries, the largest population of accused poisoners consisted of wives, mothers, and female servants, between the ages of twenty and twenty-nine. Motives ranged widely; grudges against employers, the removal of inconvenient spouses or lovers, death benefits or the inability to financially support a child.

As I state in the historical note at the back of The Lost Apothecary, death by poison is an intimate affair; an element of trust generally exists between victim and villain. Easy access to both victims and poison cannot be underestimated when considering the prevalence of historical women poisoners. Think of the household roles common for women before the 20th century: a fatigued mother, a betrayed wife, the caretaker of a convalescent, begrudged cooks or servants. These roles permitted women not only intimate access to members of a household, but to an array of food and drink, medicine, even pest control toxins. Women have always been closest to the victim and the victual.

And let’s face it: women simply evoke less suspicion. Who really believes a young, sheepish housemaid capable of killing her prosperous employer? 

Poison, when done right, leaves no trace: no wound, no evidence. This would logically appeal to a female killer who, fearing she may be physically weaker than a man, needs to avoid a direct confrontation. Said another way: poison lets a woman be sly about things. 

A_Glass_of_Wine_with_Caesar_Borgia_-_John_Collier via wikimedia_public domainArguably the most well-known historical female poisoner is Giulia Tofana, an Italian woman who lived in the mid-17th century. She invented the concoction known as Aqua Tofana, which contained arsenic, lead, and belladonna. It was colorless and tasteless and therefore easily mixed with food or wine. Aqua Tofana was an especially cunning poison because it did not kill the victim immediately, but rather multiple doses were necessary, giving indication that a patient grew ill over a period of days or weeks. 

Giulia Tofana was known to frolic with apothecaries, hence her strong knowledge of toxins and their uses. She sold her famous concoction to women who wanted to escape their abusive or inconvenient husbands. Ultimately, under torture before her death, she confessed to killing 600 men.

I’m often asked if Giulia Tofana inspired the apothecary poisoner in The Lost Apothecary, and the answer is no. I centered my research around English poisoners in the 18th and 19th centuries, and I’m almost embarrassed to admit that I didn’t learn about Giulia Tofana until well after the book had been written. 

John_William_Waterhouse_-_Sketch_of_Circe,_1911-1914Still, there’s a reason I was drawn to the idea of women poisoners and, more importantly, the ways that women sought agency in a historical sense. The Lost Apothecary is an exploration of women rebelling against the patriarchy and exerting power in one of the only ways available to them. Prior to the mid-20th century, leaving a marriage or household employment due to abuse or betrayal was not really an option. It meant poverty, homelessness, physical abuse, even legal repercussions. In The Lost Apothecary, I propose an alternative: don’t leave, just get rid of the man. I provide a few (fictional) examples of this, such as a young housemaid seeking vengeance on her employer, or a disgruntled wife whose husband is having an affair, or a sister who discovers that her brother intends to kill their beloved father.

The Lost Apothecary takes place in 1791. The late 18th century was an ideal time to set a book about an apothecary poisoner, because it wasn’t until the mid-19th  century that early toxicologists were able to reliably detect poison in human tissue. In bills of mortality prior to this time, poisoning homicide is little more than a footnote. Yet after this science came to fruition, poisoning deaths skyrocketed. Coincidence? No. People had always used poison to seek vengeance, but these deaths were chalked up to other causes. Further proof that poison really is the perfect murder weapon, at least two hundred years ago.

One of the characters in The Lost Apothecary says it quite succinctly: A killer need not lift her long, delicate hand. She need not touch him as he dies. There are other, wiser ways: vials and victuals. 

Leave it to the women to find a way to kill a man without so much as touching him.

Female poisoners_Sarah Penner webinarJoin Sarah Tuesday, May 10 at 1pm Eastern for her webinar: Unburying the Secrets of The Lost Apothecary. Our webinars are free to The Herb Society of America members and $5.00 for guests. Become a member today, and enjoy all of our webinars for free along with access to the webinar library with over fifty program titles. To register, visit https://www.herbsociety.org/hsa-learn/herb-education/hsa-webinars/

Photo Credits: 1) The Love Potion, by Evelyn De Morgan (public domain); 2) A Glass of Wine with Caesar Borgia, by John Collier (public domain); 3) Sketch of Circe, by John William Waterhouse (public domain); 4) Sarah Penner and The Lost Apothecary (courtesy of the author).

Book Interview: A Garden to Dye For

Book Interview: A Garden to Dye For

By Paris Wolfe, Blogmaster, The Herb Society of America

A-Garden-to-Dye-for-Cover-small-300x300 Author Chris McLaughlin shows readers how to use botanicals to dye fiber and fabric in her book A Garden to Dye For (St. Lynn’s Press, 2014, $17.95). Her palette includes the obvious and the obscure. Indigo and madder root are well documented. But, did you know the properties of pokeberry, mint, bee balm, purple basil, marjoram, tansy? Check out Chris’s book and learn to coax color from nature.

 The book itself is small enough to tuck into a purse for reading on long journeys or in busy waiting rooms. And, it’s full of garden layouts and step-by-step instructions illustrated by lush pictures.

We recently caught up with Chris for an interview about her all-natural, organic options for dying fiber and fabric.

Garden to Dye For authorHow did you get interested in using plants for dye?

As a lifetime gardener I was aware that some plants could be used as natural dyes, but for years the only project I had ever used them for was Easter Eggs. Once I become involved with hand-spinning fiber, I rediscovered botanical dyes — this time using natural fibers such as mohair, silk, and cotton.

How do you use dyeing in your life?

I mostly use botanicals to dye the yarns that I handspin. One of my favorite uses is to make artisan silk scarves and play silks for young children.

 What’s your favorite color? Your favorite herb?  

I don’t truly have a favorite color nor herb. However, it’s really exciting to watch the purples come out of the lichen dye pot. Also marigolds are usually within reach for almost everybody and so easy to use. That’s my go-to much of the time. I was surprised to find how much I love the walnut dye. It’s the richest brown ever.

 What results have you had? 

 My results are often consistent with what I set out to achieve. However, if they are not, then I consider it a learning moment. I also experiment with botanical materials collected at different times of the years to see what results come from them. I’ve never had so much fun with experimentation.

 Will people fail and move on? Can they fix things? 

If you’re trying to achieve a specific color and it turns out differently than you’ve heard it “should” then you might have to adjust the pH of the bath by adding something alkaline such as baking soda or acidic such as vinegar. So, in that sense, it can be fixed it altered.

If I have dyed something already and can’t alter the dyebath, then I simply make a new one or dye over it.

What should everyone remember to do?

Have patience. Many times people assume that their dyebath has failed” to produce a certain color. When the truth us that if they have more patience and slow down, it often shows up.

 What pointers/tips would you offer dyers?

The best piece of advice I can offer is to try dyeing with several plant materials and various textiles. I find that cotton has the hardest time taking natural dyes and that can be discouraging if that is the first (and only) thing that you try dyeing. If you want results immediately, go for wool or silk the first time around.

Also, if you are getting various natural dye “recipes” — try all of them. See what works for you and what you enjoy best. And don’t forget to write everything down! You think you’ll remember what you used to achieve a certain color…but you honestly won’t.